When you are looking at a near object, the lens needs to become more rounded at the central surface in flat balloon that is often used with helium).If you look at your reflected image on the flat side of the balloon, you will notice that it becomes smaller if you pull the edges of the balloon outwards.
Wearing swimming goggles under water allows the layer of air to be present.
Behind the aqueous fluid is the second lens system.
It consists of a convex lens that is soft and pliable.
The ciliary muscle is a circular ring of muscle that attaches all the way around the lens.
When an alternative proposal of how something works is suggested, there is often a long process of discussion and experiment before the new idea is either disregarded or accepted.
For example, since Dr Schachar proposed an alternative mechanism of how the ciliary muscles change the shape of the lens, there has been much argument and counter-argument.
About 70% of the bending of light takes place as it enters the cornea and the aqueous fluid.
This bending is possible because of the curve of the cornea as well as the change in refractive index as light moves from air into the cornea and then into the aqueous fluid between the cornea and the iris.
For the eye, light from distant objects is focused onto the retina at the back of the eye.