They worked the silver mines of Spain, passed through the Strait of Gibraltar, and founded the city of Cadiz on the southern coast of Spain.They sailed to the British Isles for tin and may have ventured around southern Africa.
The roster of Phoenician cities changed during the near millennium-long period beginning in 1200 B.
C., reflecting the waxing and waning of their individual fortunes and the impinging historical events of the Near East. C., however, the material culture of the Phoenicians extended southward, and Sidon controlled Dor and Joppa during the Persian period (539-333 B. The Achaemenians, an Iranian dynasty under the leadership of Cyrus II, conquered the area in 538 B. Sidon became a principal coastal city of this empire.
The Phoenicians supplied the great Persian fleets with which Darius and Xerxes attacked Greece.
Usually they submitted readily to foreign conquerors and paid tribute.
They founded many colonies, the greatest being Carthage.
The Phoenicians began to develop as a seafaring, manufacturing, and trading nation when the Cretans--the first masters of the Mediterranean--were overthrown by the Greeks (see Aegean Civilization).
More than 2,500 years ago Phoenician mariners sailed to Mediterranean and southwestern European ports.
The Phoenicians were the great merchants of ancient times. These Phoenicians (the Canaanites, or Sidonians, of the Bible) were Semitic people.
C., graphically portrays the decline of Egyptian prestige and power in the Levant.